Prepared Citizens

Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

  • Previous Posts

  • Michael Osterholm Quotes:

    “What we need to be doing now is the basic planning of how we get our communities through 12 to 18 months of a pandemic.”

    “Ninety-five out of 100 will live. But with the nation in crisis, will we have food and water? Are we going to have police and security? Will people come to work at all?”

    “It's the perfect setup. Then you put air travel in and it could be around the world overnight.”

    “We can predict now 12 to 18 months of stress of watching loved ones die, of wondering if you are going to have food on the table the next day. Those are all things that are going to mean that we are going to have to plan -- unlike any other crisis that we have had in literally the last 80-some years in this country.”

  • US Health and Human Services

    Secretary Michael Leavitt

    "If there is one message on pandemic preparedness that I could leave today that you would remember, it would be this:

    Any community that fails to prepare with the expectation that the federal government or for that matter the state government will be able to step forward and come to their rescue at the final hour will be tragically wrong,

    not because government will lack a will, not because we lack a collective wallet, but because there is no way that you can respond to every hometown in America at the same time."
  • Joseph C. Napoli, MD of Resiliency LLC

    "I think a new meaning is evolving for resiliency and resilience.

    In some contexts the words are being used to mean the strength to resist being impacted by an adverse event rather than either the “capacity to rebound” or “act of rebounding” from adversity.

    Therefore, resiliency and resilience appear to be assuming the meaning of fortitude, that is, “the strength or firmness of mind that enables a person to encounter danger with coolness and courage or to bear pain or adversity without despondency” as defined in the Webster’s Third New International Dictionary.

    If so, we are coming full circle with science accepting a religious moral virtue – fortitude – as written in the Bible’s Book of Wisdom"

  • Faith Based Resources

    John Piper
    Jonathan Edwards
    Pink-Saving Faith
    Pink-Christian Ethics

    "Examine yourselves, whether ye be in the faith; prove your own selves"
    (2 Corinthians 13:5).

    Why Faith Groups Must Care

    When the Darkness Will Not Lift by John Piper


    Be Not Afraid
    Overcoming the fear of Death
    by Johann Christoph Arnold

    While I am not a professional journalist, I do embrace the code of ethics put forth by the Society of Professional Journalists and the statement of purpose by the Association of Health Care Journalists and above all else I strive to "do no harm".

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  • Definitions

    from Wikipedia

    Pandemic Influenza

    An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of the influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the human population.

    In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly, with the 1918 Spanish flu the most serious pandemic in recent history.

    Pandemics can cause high levels of mortality, with the Spanish influenza being responsible for the deaths of over 50 million people.

    There have been about 3 influenza pandemics in each century for the last 300 years. The most recent ones were the Asian Flu in 1957 and the Hong Kong Flu in 1968.

    Seasonal Influenza

    Flu season is the portion of the year in which there is a regular outbreak in flu cases.

    It occurs during the cold half of the year in each hemisphere.

    Flu activity can sometimes be predicted and even tracked geographically. While the beginning of major flu activity in each season varies by location, in any specific location these minor epidemics usually take about 3 weeks to peak and another 3 weeks to significantly diminish.

    Individual cases of the flu however, usually only last a few days. In some countries such as Japan and China, infected persons sometimes wear a surgical mask out of respect for others.

    Avian (Bird) Flu
    Avian influenza,

    sometimes Avian flu, and commonly Bird flu refers to "influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds."

    "Bird flu" is a phrase similar to "Swine flu", "Dog flu", "Horse flu", or "Human flu" in that it refers to an illness caused by any of many different strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host.

    All known viruses that cause influenza in birds belong to the species: Influenza A virus.

    All subtypes (but not all strains of all subtypes) of Influenza A virus are adapted to birds, which is why for many purposes avian flu virus is the Influenza A virus (note that the "A" does not stand for "avian").
    Adaptation is non-exclusive.

    Being adapted towards a particular species does not preclude adaptations, or partial adaptations, towards infecting different species.

    In this way strains of influenza viruses are adapted to multiple species, though may be preferential towards a particular host.

    For example, viruses responsible for influenza pandemics are adapted to both humans and birds.

    Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish Flu virus shows it to have genes adapted to both birds and humans; with more of its genes from birds than less deadly later pandemic strains.

    H5N1 Strain

    Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species.

    A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1", is the causative agent of H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or "bird flu".

    It is enzootic in many bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia. One strain of HPAI A(H5N1) is spreading globally after first appearing in Asia.

    It is epizootic (an epidemic in nonhumans) and panzootic (affecting animals of many species, especially over a wide area), killing tens of millions of birds and spurring the culling of hundreds of millions of others to stem its spread.

    Most references to "bird flu" and H5N1 in the popular media refer to this strain.

    As of the July 25, 2008 FAO Avian Influenza Disease Emergency Situation Update, H5N1 pathogenicity is continuing to gradually rise in wild birds in endemic areas but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination.

    Eleven outbreaks of H5N1 were reported worldwide in June 2008 in five countries (China, Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan and Vietnam) compared to 65 outbreaks in June 2006 and 55 in June 2007.

    The "global HPAI situation can be said to have improved markedly in the first half of 2008 [but] cases of HPAI are still underestimated and underreported in many countries because of limitations in country disease surveillance systems".

    Pandemic Severity Index

    The Pandemic Severity Index (PSI) is a proposed classification scale for reporting the severity of influenza pandemics in the United States.

    The PSI was accompanied by a set of guidelines intended to help communicate appropriate actions for communities to follow in potential pandemic situations. [1]

    Released by the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on February 1, 2007, the PSI was designed to resemble the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale

    From the Massachusetts Health and Human Services


    refers to separating people who are ill from other people to prevent the spread of a communicable disease.


    refers to separating and restricting the movement of people who have been exposed to a communicable disease and are not yet ill.
  • Additional Information

    Creative Commons License
    Prepared Citizens by Catherine "Jackie" Mitchell is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.
    Based on a work at

    The posts on this site are subject to change. Mostly due to errors in spelling or grammar. I never said I am a professional journalist. I have new appreciation for the job that they do. Also, not all comments made by others will make it onto this site. Comments that advertise a commercial product do not get posted most of the time.

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  • standingfirm

Pandemics Are Not Always Caused By Influenza Viruses

Posted by preparedcitizens on October 31, 2008

Global Pandemics throughout history have been caused by many different diseases.

From bubonic plague, hemorrhagic fever, HIV/AIDs, SARS, typhus, smallpox, cholera, yellow fever, influenza, scarlet fever, malaria, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis are some infectious diseases that have resulted in epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. today, there are the drug resistant diseases like tuberculosis and MRSA which threaten to outpace modern science as far as treatment and containment are concerned.

With all of our modern medical knowledge and modern treatment techniques, still not enough is known and/or still enough cannot be done to prevent horrible diseases from taking hold of the population. At some point it will truly come down to us meeting these plagues and pestilences as individuals and families right where we live. And we better be prepared to fight them or to perish.

Some people say that it cannot happen again. Others say that if it does happen there will be a cure and it will be delivered to them in time. This is just not so.

People trust in modern medicines and physicians when these physicians themselves say not to do this. Experts tell us to prepare, they tell us that we must know how to place barriers between ourselves and the illness. Masks, hand sanitizers, voluntary isolation and quarantine, social distancing, closing schools and businesses, we must know how and when to do this in order to safeguard ourselves and our families. And then we will need to be able to pick up the pieces of our lives and our cities, towns, states, and countries after the “storm” passes through.

Many, if not most, of these plagues and pestilences were spread by soldiers and troops returning from far away wars or wars that were being fought in the areas of origin. Soldiers were the travelers of those days. Today our travelers are businessmen and holiday goers. This change is very recent and will prove to be deadly.  Our patterns of travel today are new, certainly within this generation we have witnessed the birth of the generation that runs to and fro.

But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased. ~Daniel 12:4

We are the generation running to and fro. We are the generation witnessing a, if not “the”, increase in knowledge. Almost every document ever written is at our fingertips, literally. Through Google Translator tools we can speak to almost any person anywhere on the globe in their own language.

verse 10 also explains why some will not turn to God for understanding while we all endure this trial.

“Many shall be purified, and made white, and tried; but the wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked shall understand; but the wise shall understand”. ~Daniel 12:10


With all of our modern science and technology there exists no cure for bubonic plague and viral hemorrhagic fever, or other viral illnesses. There is no reason to believe that science has irradiated them and that they are not a threat to us even today. With 6 billion people on earth antibiotics and antivirals will not save us all or even many of us.


c. 1300 BC in Akhet-Aten a plague of unknown cause forced the abandonment of the city now known as El-Amarna. This cause is unknown of this plague that spread throughout the Middle East at that time.


430 BC the first known pandemic – An unknown killer spread causing symptoms of high fever, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, vomiting, violent muscle spasms, pustules and then death. Most people died after seven or eight days of suffering. Survivors were left without fingers, toes, some lost their eyesight or their memory. No one knows whether this was caused by bubonic plague or perhaps smallpox or measles, anthrax, typhus or typhoid. The mystery remains.


165 – 180 AD Rome was the site of origin for this pandemic, the Antonine Plague, which spread through Africa and then on through Greece and beyond. An estimated five million people died of the also estimated 190 million people alive at that time. Scientists believe that this plague was caused by either smallpox or measles brought back by returning troops from war. Rome alone suffered 2000 deaths per day. One quarter of those infected died. Their symptoms; high fever, diarrhea, inflammation of the throat, pustular skin eruptions. Smallpox or measles may have been the cause of this pandemic.


251 – 266 AD the Plague of Cyprian occurred. 5000 people a day died in Rome. Diarrhea, vomiting, conjunctivitis, severe infection from pustules which caused loss of body parts due to gangrene or severe infection, blindness. The cause was thought to be smallpox or measles. Smallpox has been eradicated except for the samples in labs. Measles we have vaccines against, they work effectively for now but there effectiveness is also determined by how many actually utilize the vaccines.


527 – 565 AD the Plague of Justinian occurred. For roughly 50 years people were effected by either a viral hemorrhagic or bubonic plague. Most likely the cause was bubonic plague. in May 542, Constantinople experienced the worst of the outbreaks. People shut themselves in their homes hoping to escape the sickness. Sudden high fever, chills, vomiting, light sensitivity, buboes in the armpits and groin, or behind the ears or in the thighs caused great pain. Violent muscle spasms and then coma, and then most often death was the result. Those who survived were weakened for life, some could not speak because of the effects of the illness. It is estimated that 100 million people died, half of the worlds population at the time.


639 AD the Plague of Emmaus occurred in Palestine and was of unknown cause but widely thought to be bubonic plague. 25,000 people died and it is thought to have been part of the outbreaks following the Plague of Justinian.


1347 – 1351 AD the Black Death.  A bubonic plague with three variations occurred. Bubonic, where swellings or buboes appeared. Pneumonic plague was also experienced and it attacked the respiratory system. Once contracted people lived approximately two days. The septicemic variant attacked the blood system.

Because people at the time did not understand what was overtaking them they reacted in ways that were not helpful in stopping the spread of the illness within their families and countryside.


the list goes on…..


1402 – 1404 AD the Great Plague of Iceland a black death plague. Nearly one-third of the population died.


1575 AD the Hemorrhagic Plague of 1575 actually took place throughout Northern Europe between 1571 – 1576.


1592 – 1594 AD the London Plague a hemorrhagic plague


1629 – 1631 AD the Great Plague of Milan a hemorrhagic plague


1641 – 1644 AD the plague of unknown cause that ended the Ming Dynasty occurred.


1649 AD the hemorrhagic Plague of Seville occurred.


1665 – 1666 AD the Great Plague of London, a hemorrhagic plague occurred.


1679 – 1680s AD the Great Plague of Vienna, a hemorrhagic plague occurred.


1720 – 1722 AD the Great Plague of Marseille, possibly a bubonic plague, occurred.


1771 AD the Plague Riot in Moscow, possibly caused by bubonic plague, occurred.


1855 – 1950s AD the Third Pandemic of bubonic plague which originated in China occurred.


1918 – Called the Spanish Flu or the 1918 Influenza Pandemic, estimates of 50 million to 100 million people worldwide died.


1957 a mild influenza pandemic occurred


1968 a mild influenza pandemic occurred


Today’s negative sense RNA viruses or some other disease already common and known to man could spark a global pandemic. Intellectual honesty also demands that in this modern age we acknowledge the manipulation of these agents as a possible trigger to a pandemic, but as seen from these pandemics of history, nature can be quite cruel on its own. But to think that today we are limited in threat only to the H5N1 influenza virus is a mistake.

Within the family of viruses there are others specific ones which are on the watch list. Arenaviruses, the Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers, Filoviruses, ebola virus are all cited in various places as possible causes of the next pandemic. Even dengue, and chikungunya and malaria, typically tropical diseases, are changing in their scope and reach. So what are we, in the general population, to do?


There is a common denominator to how to deal with this, preparedness. We don’t need to focus on one or even all of these diseases – simply focusing on how to prevent their spread by practicing good hygiene and knowing what to do when there is an epidemic in our area is enough for right now. Knowing how to build up our resiliency is crucial in a world of six billion people. We must also focus on how we will recover as families and communities, how we will pick up the pieces of our lives in order to go on.

As for me and mine, we keep these diseases in the back of my mind  but we do not get caught up in focusing on each and every specific threat. To do so would keep us from thinking about what I must do to protect my family. The “all pandemic hazards” approach works for us because what we must do is the same for any cause.

1. Prepare our home for a length of time where we must shelter in place. Three to four months of supplies is the prudent approach.

2. Know how to isolate an ill family member while being able to still care for them safely and with love and caring.

3. Know how to help others who are not yet aware of what to do when the time comes. Know how we as community members can safely help each other.

4. Make use of any vaccines and preventative measures that we have today that may help us in the battle against an influenza pandemic. Seasonal flu vaccines may help us fight off pandemic influenza. Today’s vaccines are safe for virtually everyone and while we are not compelled to take them it is wise to do so.

5. One of the most important things that we can do, in my assessment, is to be prepared on all levels of our lives. Spiritually, mentally and physically prepare for what is ahead. Know the reason for your hope and speak about your hope to others.

We are alone and yet together in this battle against a common enemy – disease.

2 Responses to “Pandemics Are Not Always Caused By Influenza Viruses”

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