Prepared Citizens

Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

  • Previous Posts

  • Michael Osterholm Quotes:

    “What we need to be doing now is the basic planning of how we get our communities through 12 to 18 months of a pandemic.”

    “Ninety-five out of 100 will live. But with the nation in crisis, will we have food and water? Are we going to have police and security? Will people come to work at all?”

    “It's the perfect setup. Then you put air travel in and it could be around the world overnight.”

    “We can predict now 12 to 18 months of stress of watching loved ones die, of wondering if you are going to have food on the table the next day. Those are all things that are going to mean that we are going to have to plan -- unlike any other crisis that we have had in literally the last 80-some years in this country.”

  • US Health and Human Services

    Secretary Michael Leavitt

    "If there is one message on pandemic preparedness that I could leave today that you would remember, it would be this:

    Any community that fails to prepare with the expectation that the federal government or for that matter the state government will be able to step forward and come to their rescue at the final hour will be tragically wrong,

    not because government will lack a will, not because we lack a collective wallet, but because there is no way that you can respond to every hometown in America at the same time."
  • Joseph C. Napoli, MD of Resiliency LLC

    "I think a new meaning is evolving for resiliency and resilience.

    In some contexts the words are being used to mean the strength to resist being impacted by an adverse event rather than either the “capacity to rebound” or “act of rebounding” from adversity.

    Therefore, resiliency and resilience appear to be assuming the meaning of fortitude, that is, “the strength or firmness of mind that enables a person to encounter danger with coolness and courage or to bear pain or adversity without despondency” as defined in the Webster’s Third New International Dictionary.

    If so, we are coming full circle with science accepting a religious moral virtue – fortitude – as written in the Bible’s Book of Wisdom"

  • Faith Based Resources

    John Piper
    Jonathan Edwards
    Pink-Saving Faith
    Pink-Christian Ethics

    "Examine yourselves, whether ye be in the faith; prove your own selves"
    (2 Corinthians 13:5).

    Why Faith Groups Must Care

    When the Darkness Will Not Lift by John Piper


    Be Not Afraid
    Overcoming the fear of Death
    by Johann Christoph Arnold

    While I am not a professional journalist, I do embrace the code of ethics put forth by the Society of Professional Journalists and the statement of purpose by the Association of Health Care Journalists and above all else I strive to "do no harm".

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  • Definitions

    from Wikipedia

    Pandemic Influenza

    An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of the influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the human population.

    In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly, with the 1918 Spanish flu the most serious pandemic in recent history.

    Pandemics can cause high levels of mortality, with the Spanish influenza being responsible for the deaths of over 50 million people.

    There have been about 3 influenza pandemics in each century for the last 300 years. The most recent ones were the Asian Flu in 1957 and the Hong Kong Flu in 1968.

    Seasonal Influenza

    Flu season is the portion of the year in which there is a regular outbreak in flu cases.

    It occurs during the cold half of the year in each hemisphere.

    Flu activity can sometimes be predicted and even tracked geographically. While the beginning of major flu activity in each season varies by location, in any specific location these minor epidemics usually take about 3 weeks to peak and another 3 weeks to significantly diminish.

    Individual cases of the flu however, usually only last a few days. In some countries such as Japan and China, infected persons sometimes wear a surgical mask out of respect for others.

    Avian (Bird) Flu
    Avian influenza,

    sometimes Avian flu, and commonly Bird flu refers to "influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds."

    "Bird flu" is a phrase similar to "Swine flu", "Dog flu", "Horse flu", or "Human flu" in that it refers to an illness caused by any of many different strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host.

    All known viruses that cause influenza in birds belong to the species: Influenza A virus.

    All subtypes (but not all strains of all subtypes) of Influenza A virus are adapted to birds, which is why for many purposes avian flu virus is the Influenza A virus (note that the "A" does not stand for "avian").
    Adaptation is non-exclusive.

    Being adapted towards a particular species does not preclude adaptations, or partial adaptations, towards infecting different species.

    In this way strains of influenza viruses are adapted to multiple species, though may be preferential towards a particular host.

    For example, viruses responsible for influenza pandemics are adapted to both humans and birds.

    Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish Flu virus shows it to have genes adapted to both birds and humans; with more of its genes from birds than less deadly later pandemic strains.

    H5N1 Strain

    Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species.

    A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1", is the causative agent of H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or "bird flu".

    It is enzootic in many bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia. One strain of HPAI A(H5N1) is spreading globally after first appearing in Asia.

    It is epizootic (an epidemic in nonhumans) and panzootic (affecting animals of many species, especially over a wide area), killing tens of millions of birds and spurring the culling of hundreds of millions of others to stem its spread.

    Most references to "bird flu" and H5N1 in the popular media refer to this strain.

    As of the July 25, 2008 FAO Avian Influenza Disease Emergency Situation Update, H5N1 pathogenicity is continuing to gradually rise in wild birds in endemic areas but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination.

    Eleven outbreaks of H5N1 were reported worldwide in June 2008 in five countries (China, Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan and Vietnam) compared to 65 outbreaks in June 2006 and 55 in June 2007.

    The "global HPAI situation can be said to have improved markedly in the first half of 2008 [but] cases of HPAI are still underestimated and underreported in many countries because of limitations in country disease surveillance systems".

    Pandemic Severity Index

    The Pandemic Severity Index (PSI) is a proposed classification scale for reporting the severity of influenza pandemics in the United States.

    The PSI was accompanied by a set of guidelines intended to help communicate appropriate actions for communities to follow in potential pandemic situations. [1]

    Released by the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on February 1, 2007, the PSI was designed to resemble the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale

    From the Massachusetts Health and Human Services


    refers to separating people who are ill from other people to prevent the spread of a communicable disease.


    refers to separating and restricting the movement of people who have been exposed to a communicable disease and are not yet ill.
  • Additional Information

    Creative Commons License
    Prepared Citizens by Catherine "Jackie" Mitchell is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.
    Based on a work at

    The posts on this site are subject to change. Mostly due to errors in spelling or grammar. I never said I am a professional journalist. I have new appreciation for the job that they do. Also, not all comments made by others will make it onto this site. Comments that advertise a commercial product do not get posted most of the time.

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Archive for the ‘Christian Ambassadors’ Category

What Are You Throwing Away?

Posted by preparedcitizens on January 2, 2009



Prepare but prepare because we have hope!

Prepare because we have faith!

Prepare most of all because we have love!

Posted in Christian Ambassadors, Health | Tagged: | 1 Comment »

Christian Ambassadors Highlighted: The Salvation Army

Posted by preparedcitizens on November 3, 2008

“Doing The Most Good”


For many of us the only contact that we have with the Salvation Army are the bell ringers outside of retail stores during the Christmas season.

Founded in July 1865 by William Booth, the Salvation Army began preaching the hope that is found in Jesus Christ to the destitute in the slums of London leading many to salvation in the Lord. William was unsettled by the poverty that existed around him, many of those destitute souls were unwelcome into the churches. Booth believed that church ministers should be “loosing the chains of injustice, freeing the captive and oppressed, sharing food and home, clothing the naked, and carrying out family responsibilities.”

“In answer to your inquiry, I consider that the chief dangers which confront the coming century will be religion without the Holy Ghost, Christianity without Christ, forgiveness without repentance, salvation without regeneration, politics without God, and heaven without hell.” ~ William Booth

William’s wife, Catherine, was known as the “Army Mother” and she was co-founder of the organization with her husband. No small feat at the time since the 1860’s were not known to be the most progressive of times for women. Catherine Booth became a preacher, theologian and evangelist. She believed that Christians must be passionate about their faith.

“If we are to better the future we must disturb the present” ~Catherine Booth

It was in 1860 that Catherine first realized her calling to preach when she rose to give her first sermon, quite unplanned and risking censure.

Salvation Army meetings were characterized by having altar calls to salvation, singing, music, clapping and generally a joyous time in the Lord, also quite different than the worship style of the time.

Many members of the Salvation Army were imprisoned for bucking the status quo. They argued for temperance and for better working conditions for women in phosphorus match factories. They were engaged in the battles of their time.

And as it was then, so it is now with the Salvation Army.

Our Disaster Relief Program

The Salvation Army is often among the first on the scene when disaster strikes. Officers are trained to meet all kinds of emergencies by providing food, shelter, clothing and spiritual comfort. Disaster canteens have become familiar sights to firemen, policemen and victims alike.

from their Disaster Services page

Federal law has reaffirmed The Salvation Army’s authority to provide disaster assistance with the passage of the Robert T. Stafford Emergency and Disaster Assistance Act, which also created the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This Act specifically names The Salvation Army as a relief and disaster assistance organization. Several factors guide The Salvation Army’s role in responding to disasters. These guiding factors include:

  • The Salvation Army has an established right to provide disaster relief services. That right is recognized by public law and through signed Memorandums of Understanding and Agreements (MOUs) with government agencies and other voluntary organizations.
  • The Salvation Army’s disaster relief services are supported solely by donations.
  • The Salvation Army is not a first responder; rather, it supports first responders.
  • The Salvation Army is a mass-care support agency.

The Salvation Army’s Goals in Emergency Disaster Services When The Salvation Army initiates a disaster relief operation, the first aim is to meet the basic needs of those who have been affected, both survivors and first responders (such as firefighters). Even at this level, The Salvation Army’s workers are ministering in that they serve as a means of expressing God?s love. The Salvation Army’s goals are to offer:

  • Material comfort
  • Physical comfort
  • Emotional comfort
  • Spiritual comfort

The Salvation Army provides help as an outgrowth of faith and as an act of obedience to God, but no service is withheld because of a recipient’s beliefs. If disaster relief recipients ask for prayer or spiritual counseling, The Salvation Army can provide these. The Salvation Army’s service might be described as a "ministry of presence," just as the Apostle Paul wrote to the Romans, "Rejoice with those who rejoice, and mourn with those who mourn." (Romans 12:15)

The Salvation Army’s Emergency Disaster Service Activities The Salvation Army provides numerous disaster relief services. Each disaster creates its own unique circumstances. The Salvation Army’s disaster response is community based, varying from place to place based upon the community?s situation and the magnitude of the disaster. In a disaster, The Salvation Army has the ability to provide both immediate emergency assistance and long-term recovery help .

Emergency response services are activated on short notice according to an agreed-upon notification procedure, while long-term recovery is strategically planned in response to the situation, through working and partnering with many other community entities. Even with the ability to be flexible and to respond based upon the community’s situation, there are several basic services that The Salvation Army offers in most major disasters. These services, described below, form the core of The Salvation Army’s disaster services program.

Food Service

The most visible of The Salvation Army’s disaster services is the delivery of meals and drinks to disaster victims and emergency workers. Food may be prepared and served at congregate feeding sites (such as a Salvation Army corps building, camp or shelter) or from one of the Army’s mobile feeding units/canteens, which are essentially kitchens on wheels. Nourishment is provided at other types of events, such as:

  • Search and rescue operations
  • Law enforcement activities
  • School violence incidents
  • Disaster drills
  • Training exercises
  • Special Events

Hydration Service

Hydration service provides beverages which replenish electrolytes (minerals such as potassium), enhance energy and which meet general hydration requirements for those served. Hydration service is offered to affected people and service providers. Hydration service is often used to augment disaster food service. In some situations, however, hydration may be all that is required. Some situations where hydration service is provided alone include:

  • Where food is not the most immediate basic need, such as at public events where people may become victims of heat exposure.
  • When consumption of food is not safe, such as when air borne contaminants are present.
  • Where and when a local Department of Health restricts the serving of food.
  • When security management does not allow food service.

Emergency Shelter

When necessary, The Salvation Army provides shelter in a facility identified by the local emergency management personnel. These facilities include:

  • Municipal shelters, such as schools
  • Salvation Army buildings
  • Other facilities that are predetermined by authorities

Cleanup and Restoration

The Salvation Army supports people as they restore and rebuild after a disaster. Cleanup and restoration services include:

  • Distribution of cleanup supplies such as mops, brooms, buckets, shovels, detergents, and tarps.
  • Coordination of volunteer rebuilding teams.
  • Set up of warehouses to distribute reconstruction supplies such as lumber and sheetrock.

Donations Management

The Salvation Army is one of the nation’s leaders in collecting, sorting, and distributing donated goods. During a disaster, The Salvation Army may:

  • Open disaster warehouses to receive and sort donations.
  • Establish distribution centers to dispense goods directly to disaster victims.
  • Use donations to support other disaster programs, such as mass feeding and cleanup.

Spiritual and Emotional Care

The Salvation Army provides spiritual comfort and emotional support to disaster victims and emergency workers coping with the stress of a disaster. Salvation Army counselors, who are often ordained as clergy (officers), may simply offer a "ministry of presence," but often people who know about The Salvation Army as representatives of God may ask for prayer or help from the Bible. At Ground Zero following 9/11, one of the most critical ministries of The Salvation Army was counseling firefighters, police, and morgue workers who were struggling with the enormity of the tragedy. Other examples of spiritual and emotional care activities include:

  • Comforting the injured and bereaved
  • Conducting funeral and memorial services
  • Providing chaplaincy service to disaster workers and emergency management personnel

Disaster Social Services

The Salvation Army provides direct financial assistance to disaster victims through a system of trained caseworkers. This assistance is available for:

  • Essential living supplies, such as food, clothing, medicine, bedding, or baby products
  • Emergency housing needs
  • Disaster-related medical or funeral expenses

Emergency Communications (SATERN)

Through The Salvation Army Team Emergency Radio Network ( ) and other amateur radio groups, The Salvation Army helps provide emergency communications when more traditional networks, such as telephones, are not operating. These teams:

  • Relay critical information about the disaster.
  • Transmit welfare inquiries from friends and family members who are otherwise unable to reach loved ones in the disaster area.


This service provides the support to keep the other services functioning and includes:

  • Clerical and office support
  • Purchasing and accounting
  • Statistics and reports
  • Documentation for authorities
  • Personnel, staff and trained volunteers
  • Management of spontaneous volunteers

The Salvation Army FY 2006/2007 Service Statistics

This summary represents a combining of data extracted from the Audited Financial Statements of six USA corporations. Four of these – the Central Territory, the Eastern Territory, the Southern Territory and the Western Territory – supervise 8,500 units of operation throughout the United States including Puerto Rico, Guam and the Marshall Islands. The two remaining corporations are the World Service Office and the National Corporation. Inter-corporation transactions have been eliminated for presentation purposes.


Centers of Operation


People Served

Corps 1,263 Basic Social Services 14,659,684
Outposts and Service Centers 175 Holiday Assistance 4,335,870
Rehabilitation Centers 156 Summer & Day Camp 204,366
Thrift Shops 1,371 Disaster Assistance 1,203,683
Community Centers, Boys/Girls Club 365 Persons Visited in Institutions 3,046,031
Child Day-Care Centers 154 Job Referrals 103,776
Adult Day-Care Centers 18 Correctional Services 502,106
Senior Citizen Centers 271 Community Centers Participants 1,114,909
Group Homes / Temp Housing 538 Persons Served in SA Institutions 1,131,581
Permanent Residences 75 Substance Abuse Rehabilitation 340,258
Medical Facilities 52 Medical Care 52,334
Service Units 2936 Transportation Provided 831,968
Camps 7 Missing Persons 148,856
Divisions 40 Day Care 166,503
Training Colleges 4 Senior Citizens 1,033,094
Other 221    
Total Centers of Operations 7,686 Total Persons Assisted 28,875,019




So this year, when you see the bell ringers outside of your favorite retail store please remember all the good that the Salvation Army has done, does, and will continue to do in the times ahead.

They truly are wonderful Christian Ambassadors.


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